     
   ☆☆    
       
  3743966
   5346
   2012-03-04
   2019-07-17
  3821
 
 
【   】
ᠮᠤᠡᠭᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ — ᠎᠎ᠾᠸᠪᠸᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ   

                                     




ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ   ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠦ᠋ᠷᠦ

ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ   ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ  ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ   ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ   

         

ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠯᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠤᠡᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠵᠤᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠯᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠠᠡᠭᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ    ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

《ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠡᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠤᠨᠤᠯ》 ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠦᠳᠦᠷ᠂ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤᠷ ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠤᠣ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠤᠣ᠂ ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠤᠣ ᠡᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠣ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ‍ᠢ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠤᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠡᠭᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠲᠡᠪᠴᠢᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠶ‍ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠪ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ‍ᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠡᠭᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠡᠭᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠡᠭᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠺᠸᠯᠢᠹᠤᠷᠳ᠋ ᠭᠸᠷᠼ ︵Clifford Geertz︶᠄ 《 ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ〈 ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ 〉 ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠷᠳᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠳᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠤᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠳᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠴᠤᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ〔1〕》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠺᠸᠯᠢᠹᠤᠷᠳ᠋ ᠭᠸᠷᠼ︵Clifford Geertz︶ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠄ 《 ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠲᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠮᠦᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠁ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠨᠳᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠡᠭᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠯᠳᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ 〔2〕》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠸᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠴᠢ ᠷᠢᠴᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠽᠸᠷᠨ᠋ᠸᠥᠯᠳ᠋︵Richard Thurnwald︶‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ᠄ 《 ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠢᠢᠭᠡᠮ  ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠨᠴᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠬᠦᠢ᠂ ᠵᠠᠡᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ 〈 ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠭ 〉 ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠡᠮᠬᠢ ᠲᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠡᠮᠬᠢ ᠲᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠥᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ᠂ ᠭᠤᠤᠯᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ〔3〕》᠃

ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ 《 ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ 〔4〕》᠃ ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠯᠠᠪᠯᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤᠷ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠦᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠤᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠪᠳᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠤᠭᠢᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠮ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠮᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠯᠳᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠦᠷᠦᠨᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷᠦᠨᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠮ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠤᠨᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠸᠢᠨ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠯᠸᠰᠮ︵Legal Orientalism) ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠤᠨᠠᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠤᠨᠳᠤᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠬᠦᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠢᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠭᠡ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠰᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ  ᠢ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠵᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠪ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠮᠢᠨᠤ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨᠤᠰ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠪ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠨᠢ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠯᠳᠡ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠯᠡᠯᠳᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠠᠡᠭᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠴᠢᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠩᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ A᠄ 《 ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠭ᠍ᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠣ ᠳ᠋ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠯᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠢᠯᠵᠡᠷᠠᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠣ①》ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠡᠭ᠂ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠤᠭᠰᠤᠴᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠦᠨᠦᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠯᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠭᠦᠤ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠢᠨᠢᠶᠡᠳᠦᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠱᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠠ ᠶᠢᠡᠭ ᠫᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠱᠠᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯᠳᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠭ᠍ᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠳᠤᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ 《 ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ 》 ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 《ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠤᠷ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨᠳᠤᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠶ‍ᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠮᠬᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠮ ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠁ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ  ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠭᠤᠤᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠁ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠡᠭᠬᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 〔5〕》᠃

  
            
              

                        
   1     19.00 
   2     33.00 
   3     47.00 
   
         
 
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   2018-06-03 16:51
   445 
    22 
    
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 ICP   12001629  
    15042102000103  